Tyrant or Victim of Bad Timing? Tyrant or Victim… Charles I made numerous mistakes throughout his reign that led to a civil war within England and ultimately led to his death in January of As a ruler who believed in the Divine Right of Kings, Charles choose to rule without parliament and introduced new taxes to fund his rather pointless wars with Spain and Scotland. He made personal and political decisions that upset his people.
The House insisted first on discussing grievances against the government and showed itself opposed to a renewal of the war; so, on May 5, the king dissolved Parliament again.
The collection of ship money was continued and so was the war. Charles, deeply perturbed at his second defeat, convened a council of peers on whose advice he summoned another Parliament, the Long Parliamentwhich met at Westminster in November The king adopted a conciliatory attitude—he agreed to the Triennial Act that ensured the meeting of Parliament once every three years—but expressed his resolve to save Strafford, to whom he promised protection.
He was unsuccessful even in this, however. Strafford was beheaded on May 12, Charles was forced to agree to a measure whereby the existing Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent.
He also accepted bills declaring ship money and other arbitrary fiscal measures illegal, and in general condemning his methods of government during the previous 11 years.
But while making these concessionshe visited Scotland in August to try to enlist anti-parliamentary support there.
He agreed to the full establishment of Presbyterianism in his northern kingdom and allowed the Scottish estates to nominate royal officials. Meanwhile, Parliament reassembled in London after a recess, and, on November 22,the Commons passed by to votes the Grand Remonstrance to the king, setting out all that had gone wrong since his accession.
At the same time news of a rebellion in Ireland had reached Westminster. Leaders of the Commons, fearing that if any army were raised to repress the Irish rebellion it might be used against them, planned to gain control of the army by forcing the king to agree to a militia bill.
He ordered the arrest of one member of the House of Lords and five of the Commons for treason and went with about men to enforce the order himself. The accused members escaped, however, and hid in the city.
After this rebuff the king left London on January 10, this time for the north of England. The Queen went to Holland in February to raise funds for her husband by pawning the crown jewels.
A lull followed, during which both Royalists and Parliamentarians enlisted troops and collected arms, although Charles had not completely given up hopes of peace. After a vain attempt to secure the arsenal at Hullin April the king settled in York, where he ordered the courts of justice to assemble and where royalist members of both houses gradually joined him.
In June the majority of the members remaining in London sent the king the Nineteen Propositionswhich included demands that no ministers should be appointed without parliamentary approval, that the army should be put under parliamentary control, and that Parliament should decide about the future of the church.
But in July both sides were urgently making ready for war. The king formally raised the royal standard at Nottingham on August 22 and sporadic fighting soon broke out all over the kingdom. Civil War In September the earl of Essexin command of the Parliamentarian forces, left London for the midlands, while Charles moved his headquarters to Shrewsbury to recruit and train an army on the Welsh marches.
During a drawn battle fought at Edgehill near Warwick on October 23, the king addressed his troops in these words: The foe is in sight. In the royal cause prospered, particularly in Yorkshire and the southwest. At Oxfordwhere Charles had moved his court and military headquarters, he dwelt pleasantly enough in Christ Church College.
The Queen, having sold some of her jewels and bought a shipload of arms from Holland, landed in Yorkshire in February and joined her husband in Oxford in mid-July.
The king seems to have assented to a scheme for a three-pronged attack on London—from the west, from Oxford, and from Yorkshire—but neither the westerners nor the Yorkshiremen were anxious to leave their own districts. In the course of a peace party of the Parliamentarian side made some approaches to Charles in Oxford, but these failed and the Parliamentarians concluded an alliance with the Scottish covenanters.
Charles successfully held his inner lines at Oxford and throughout the west and southwest of England, while he dispatched his nephew, Prince Ruperton cavalry raids elsewhere.
These came to nothing, but he was cheered by reports that his opponents were beginning to quarrel among themselves. The year proved to be one of decision.
Charles may have had some foreboding of what was to come, for in the spring he sent his eldest son, Charlesinto the west, whence he escaped to France and rejoined his mother, who had arrived there the previous year.
Charles returned to Oxford on November 5, and by the spring of Oxford was surrounded. Charles left the city in disguise with two companions late in April and arrived at the camp of the Scottish covenanters at Newark on May 5.
But when the covenanters came to terms with the victorious English Parliament in Januarythey left for home, handing over Charles I to parliamentary commissioners. He was held in Northamptonshire, where he lived a placid, healthy existence and, learning of the quarrels between the New Model Army and Parliament, hoped to come to a treaty with one or the other and regain his power.
In June, however, a junior officer with a force of some men seized the king and carried him away to the army headquarters at Newmarket. After the army marched on London in August, the king was moved to Hampton Courtwhere he was reunited with two of his children, Henry and Elizabeth.
There Charles conducted complicated negotiations with the army leaders, with the English Parliament, and with the Scots; he did not scruple to promise one thing to one side and the opposite to the other.
Charles then twice refused the terms offered by the English Parliament and was put under closer guard, from which he vainly tried again to escape.
On January 20,he was brought before a specially constituted high court of justice in Westminster Hall. The sentence was carried out on a scaffold erected outside the banqueting hall of Whitehall on the morning of Tuesday, January 30, Was Parliament ‘right’ to execute Charles I?– Essay Research Charge Evidence against Charles Charles’ Defence 1.
‘That he ignored the will of Parliament and ruled according to his own will.’ 2. Charles I was the reason for the downfall The reason why war broke out between Charles I Parliament, in and was due to many reasons which will be discussed.
However Charles, belief in the divine right of kings was one of the factors that caused misunderstandings with the Parliament. Why Parliament diskliked Charles I The English Parliament disliked Charles I for four reasons: his rudeness to the members, several unconstitutional acts, terrible aff constitutional acts, terrible affinity for wasting money, and forcing the Laudian reforms upon them.
Charles I came to the throne in after the death of his father, James I. Like his father, he believed in the Divine Right of Kings. Although only parliament could pass laws and grant money for war, because they refused to do as he wished, Charles chose to rule without them.
In Parliament, Oliver Cromwell was a strong critic of King Charles the 2nd and in , when King Charles the 2nd started the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell started to raise troops and joined the Parliamentary forces, fighting against King Charles the 2nd.
Charles I, (born November 19, , Dunfermline Palace, Fife, Scotland—died January 30, , London, England), king of Great Britain and Ireland (–49), whose authoritarian rule and quarrels with Parliament provoked a civil war that led to his execution.