In doing so, new critical approaches to the Bible were developed, new attitudes became evident about the role of religion in society, and a new openness to questioning the nearly universally accepted definitions of Christian orthodoxy began to become obvious.
Messenger At first glance it may not seem so, but the story of the now-vanished island of Nahlapenlohd, a couple of kilometres south of Pohnpei Island in Micronesia, holds some valuable lessons about recent climate change in the western Pacific.
InNahlapenlohd was so large that not only did it support a sizeable coconut forest, but it was able to accommodate a memorable battle between the rival kingdoms of Kitti and Madolenihmw. The skirmish was the first in Pohnpeian history to involve the European sailor-mercenaries known as beachcombers and to be fought with imported weapons like cannons and muskets.
Today the island is no more. The oral histories tell that so much blood was spilled in this fierce battle that it stripped the island of all its vegetation, causing it to shrink and eventually disappear beneath the waves.
Sea-level rise has claimed five whole islands in the Pacific: The disappearance of islands in the Solomon Islands in the southwest Pacific has recently been attributed to sea level rise. Further north, the same is true of several reef islands off Pohnpei.
Pohnpei and its surrounding islands, both past and present. CREDIT, Author provided Surveys of 12 of these islands have shown that not only have some — like Nahlapenlohd — completely disappeared, but that most others have shrunk over the past decade.
Islands such as Laiap and Ros, which have lost two-thirds of their land area over this time, are likely to disappear completely within the coming decade.
The island of Laiap has shrunk since Partly because sea levels in this region have risen at two to three times the global average over the past few decades. In parts of Micronesia, sea level has risen by mm each year between andfar outpacing the global average of 3.
While this rate is unlikely to be sustained indefinitely, the current trend would raise sea levels by a further cm by mid-century if it were to continue.
Whole islands — even some island nations with which we are familiar today — are likely to be rendered uninhabitable or even disappear within the next 30 years. These include islands in nations like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Tokelau and Tuvalu, as well as some in other island nations that comprise mostly larger islands, such as the Federated States of Micronesia, of which Pohnpei is one.
Whether or not the islands themselves succumb or survive, sea-level rise is a clear threat to their habitability for humans. Short-term interventions — either natural fortifications such as boulder beaches, or human-built defences such as seawalls — are unlikely to change the long-term outcome.
This underscores the fact that low-lying reef islands are transient — most Pacific reef islands formed only in the past 4, years after sea levels fell and sediment began to pile up on exposed reef platforms. But of course we cannot ignore the human dimension.
While only a few dozen people today call the reef islands of Pohnpei home, they are similar to many larger reef islands in Micronesia from which people may well be involuntarily displaced during the next few decades. Where these people might go, and how they can be accommodated in ways that preserve their dignity as well as their unique culturesare very real questions for community leaders.
To have survived on islands in the middle of the ocean for more than three millennia, Micronesians and other Pacific islanders must have developed considerable resilience.
On high islands in Micronesia, the evidence for this is manifest. Ancient stonework constructions line many parts of the coastline, testament to a long history of resisting shoreline change, and sometimes of manipulating it for human advantage.
Perhaps nowhere is more evocative of this today than Nan Madol, a megalithic complex built 1, years ago on 93 artificial islands off southeast Pohnpei. There are many explanations about why Nan Madol was created.During the 19th and early 20th centuries, pianos and organs went through an incredible evolution.
Pictured below are various styles, models, and descriptions of vintage instruments that can help you determine the type and approximate age of your instrument. Islands lost to the waves: how rising seas washed away part of Micronesia’s 19th-century history. The Philippines also emerged as a regional leader in education during the late 20th century, with a well-established public school and university system, and by the early 21st century the country had one of the highest literacy rates in Asia.
Characteristic of Christianity in the 19th century were Evangelical revivals in some largely Protestant countries and later the effects of modern Biblical scholarship on the churches. Liberal or modernist theology was one consequence of this. In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church strongly opposed liberalism and "Georgia" culture wars .
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, , and ended on December 31, The 19th century saw large amounts of social change; slavery was abolished, and the Second Industrial Revolution led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity.
European imperialism brought much . Overview of the phil during the mid 19th century. 1. OVERVIEW OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING THE MID 19TH CENTURY(The Colonial Landscape: R. Constantino, The Philippines A Past Revisited Volume 1) 2.