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Enhancing domestic security against terrorism[ edit ] Main article: Patriot Act, Title I Title I authorizes measures to enhance the ability of domestic security services to prevent terrorism.
The title established a fund for counter-terrorist activities and increased funding for the Terrorist Screening Center which is administered by the FBI. The military was authorized to provide assistance in some situations that involve weapons of mass destruction when so requested by the Attorney General.
The National Electronic Crime Task Force was expanded, along with the President 's authority and abilities in cases of terrorism.
The title also condemned the discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans that happened soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The impetus for many of the provisions came from earlier bills, for instance the condemnation of discrimination was originally proposed by Senator Tom Harkin D - IA in an amendment to the Combatting Terrorism Act ofthough in a different form.
It originally included "the prayer of Cardinal Theodore McCarrickthe Steps taken by govt to stop terrorism of Washington in a Mass on September 12, for our Nation and the victims in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist hijackings and attacks in New York City, Washington, D.
Surveillance procedures[ edit ] Main article: Patriot Act, Title II Title II is titled "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures", and covers all aspects of the surveillance of suspected terrorists, those suspected of engaging in computer fraud or abuse, and agents of a foreign power who are engaged in clandestine activities.
In particular, the title allows government agencies to gather "foreign intelligence information" from both U. Also removed was the statutory requirement that the government prove a surveillance target under FISA is a non-U. Wiretaps were expanded to include addressing and routing information to allow surveillance of packet switched networks  —the Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC objected to this, arguing that it does not take into account email or web addresses, which often contain content in the address information.
Those who operate or own a "protected computer" can give permission for authorities to intercept communications carried out on the machine, thus bypassing the requirements of the Wiretap statute.
The law governing obligatory and voluntary disclosure of customer communications by cable companies was altered to allow agencies to demand such communications under U.
Title 18 provisions relating to the disclosure of electronic communications chapterpen registers and trap and trace devices chapter and stored communicationsthough it excluded the disclosure of cable subscriber viewing habits.
IP addressespayment method and bank account and credit card numbers. The so-called "sneak and peek" law allowed for delayed notification of the execution of search warrants. The period before which the FBI must notify the recipients of the order was unspecified in the Act—the FBI field manual says that it is a "flexible standard"  —and it may be extended at the court's discretion.
The court found the searches to violate the provision that prohibits unreasonable searches in the Fourth Amendment to the U.
These are seen as important by the Department of Justice because they believe that terrorists can exploit wiretap orders by rapidly changing locations and communication devices such as cell phones,  while opponents see it as violating the particularity clause of the Fourth Amendment.
The sunset provision of the Act also took into account any ongoing foreign intelligence investigations and allowed them to continue once the sections had expired. Anti-money-laundering to prevent terrorism[ edit ] Main article: It was divided into three subtitles, with the first dealing primarily with strengthening banking rules against money laundering, especially on the international stage.
The second attempts to improve communication between law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, as well as expanding recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
The third subtitle deals with currency smuggling and counterfeiting, including quadrupling the maximum penalty for counterfeiting foreign currency.
The first subtitle tightened the recordkeeping requirements for financial institutions, making them record the aggregate amounts of transactions processed from areas of the world where money laundering is a concern to the U.
It also made institutions put into place reasonable steps to identify beneficial owners of bank accounts and those who are authorized to use or route funds through payable-through accounts.
Treasury was charged with formulating regulations intended to foster information sharing between financial institutions to prevent money-laundering. Similarly, mergers between insured depository institutions and non-insured depository institutions that have a bad track record in combating money-laundering could be blocked.
It prohibited shell banks that are not an affiliate of a bank that has a physical presence in the U. It also prohibits or restricts the use of certain accounts held at financial institutions. It is expected that additional scrutiny will be applied by the U.
Banks must identify all the nominal and beneficial owners of any private bank account opened and maintained in the U. There is also an expectation that they must undertake enhanced scrutiny of the account if it is owned by, or is being maintained on behalf of, any senior political figure where there is reasonable suspicion of corruption.
Thus any restraining orderseizure warrant or arrest warrant may be made against the funds in the interbank account held at a U. Financial institutions are prohibited from allowing clients to specifically direct them to move funds into, out of, or through a concentration account, and they are also prohibited from informing their clients about the existence of such accounts.
Financial institutions are not allowed to provide any information to clients that may identify such internal accounts. The definition of money laundering was expanded to include making a financial transaction in the U.
Attorney General  and the smuggling of any item controlled under the Export Administration Regulations. An official or employee of the government who acts corruptly—as well as the person who induces the corrupt act—in the carrying out of their official duties will be fined by an amount that is not more than three times the monetary equivalent of the bribe in question.
Alternatively they may be imprisoned for not more than 15 years, or they may be fined and imprisoned. Penalties apply to financial institutions who do not comply with an order to terminate any corresponding accounts within 10 days of being so ordered by the Attorney General or the Secretary of Treasury.
One amendment made to the BSA was to allow the designated officer or agency who receives suspicious activity reports to notify U.The Nusra Front is al-Qaeda’s formal affiliate in Syria and one of the most powerful rebel groups fighting Assad. The group conducts formal military campaigns, assassinations, hostage missions, and ‘lone wolf’ operations, including al-Qaeda’s trademark suicide bombings.
What steps should be taken by the Indian government to stop the Naxalite attack? What steps should be taken by the government to stop brain drain? What steps should be taken by the Indian government to stop the attacks on foreign women visitors? Five tangible steps we could take to stop terrorist attacks #EuropeAttacks Calls for discriminatory policies and war that often follow attacks like the one in Manchester are not the answer.
COMMUNIQUE #3 Haymarket Issue "I NEED ONLY MENTION in passing that there is a curious reappearance of the Catfish tradition in the popular Godzilla cycle of films which arose after the nuclear chaos unleashed upon Japan. Editorial Note.
During the Johnson administration, the U.S. Government continued the Kennedy administration’s policy of working with the British Government to offer encouragement and support to the pro-West leaders and political organizations of British Guiana as that limited self-governing colony moved toward total independence.
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