This will also present the synthesis of the art, theoretical and conceptual framework to fully understand the research to be done and lastly the definition of terms for better comprehension of the study. Related Literature Tracer study is an approach which widely being used in most organization especially in the educational institutions to track and to keep record of their students once they have graduated from the institution.
By Stephen Knapp If we are going to understand the essential truths in Vedic literature, then we must get a glimpse of the content and purpose of its many texts and the expansive nature of the knowledge it contains. The Vedic philosophy encompasses the oldest spiritual texts of any religion in the world, and its subjects are broad and numerous.
Its more advanced concepts can be difficult for even the greatest scholars to fathom. The Vedic literature discusses many types of philosophical viewpoints, and studying some of them will let us see that many of the concepts that we accept as new today are nothing more than parts of the ancient Vedic knowledge that had been dealt with and thoroughly understood thousands of years ago.
Thus, there are not many ideas that are really new at all. The main purpose of the Vedic literature is to establish knowledge of the Absolute Truth and the process for attaining the highest levels of self-realization.
To do that it must, and does, contain the elementary as well as most advanced forms of spiritual knowledge. So let us see exactly what kind of information is found within the many volumes of Vedic literature, and if there is any one understanding or direction in particular which it encourages people to take for complete spiritual success.
However, this study will provide the knowledge for you to begin to see how vast the Vedic science is and how numerous are these Vedic texts. You will begin to understand that there are few topics that have been left uncovered in the Vedic investigation of reality and the search for Truth, and in its presentation of what is God.
You will also understand in the final analysis what direction they most recommend and how to pursue it. The oldest texts are the Rig-veda, Yajur-veda, Sama-veda, and the Atharva-veda.
It is said in the Muktikopanishad that these four Vedas had 21, and 50 branches respectively, with oververses. Now, however, we can only find around 20, some say 20, verses in total from these four Vedas.
The first eight mostly contain hymns of praise to the various demigods, such as Indra and Agni. The ninth book deals primarily with the soma ritual, which was the extraction and purification of the juice of the soma herb. The tenth book contains suktas or verses of wisdom and mantras that would cause certain magical effects to take place.
The Rig-veda hymns were mainly of praise to the gods that were invoked during the Vedic ceremonies for ensuring immediate material needs. These were chanted by the four priests who conducted the Vedic rituals, namely the hota who calls the gods with the mantras from the Rig-veda; the adhvaryu who performs all the rituals of the ceremony according to the Yajur-veda; the udgata who sings the Sama-veda mantras; and the brahmana who supervises the general ceremony.
However, it was usually only the brahmana priests who could be sure of chanting the mantras accurately to produce the desired result. If the mantra was chanted incorrectly by someone who was not qualified, the desired result would not take place and often something undesirable or horrible would happen instead.
The main gods in the Rig-veda were Indra the god of heaven and rainAgni the fire god and Surya the sun god. Surya is invoked in the sacred Gayatri mantra.
However, Surya is also called Surya-Narayana in the Rig-veda. So the hymns to Surya and his different forms can also be related to Narayana or Vishnu, especially those to Savitur. Vishnu is also known as the Pervader, meaning that all the Vedic gods are absorbed in Him, and thus must also emanate from Him.
They would be absorbed in Him during the time of cosmic annihilation, but would also emanate from Him during the time of the creation.
There were also verses to three other names and forms of the sun god, namely Savitri, Mitra and Pooshan. Other gods included Dyos a celestial godVaruna god of the seasSoma, Marut god of air or wind called Vayu in other placesRudra a form of Shiva and Vishnu.
All of these gods are celestial gods, or demigods, except for Rudra and Vishnu. The Rig-veda is also a mystical text that contains knowledge in its abstract imagery of what the seers had realized.
It has information on yoga, the spinal current and the chakras, as well as the planets and their orbits. Many aspects of this mystical knowledge are also contained in the other Vedas. The Rig-veda is said to have had 21 branches, out of which only two are still available. Much of the Shakal branch is still available, along with the Brahmana and Aranyaka of the Shankhayan branch.
Although there are some stories in the Rig-veda, there are few historical records of the early Vedic kings. This has been a mistake amongst various linguists and researchers who study the Rig-veda to try to get an historical understanding of the early Vedic kingdom and Aryans.
These contain different levels of knowledge and wisdom. The Yajur-veda once had branches of knowledge, but now only parts of seven branches are found, of which the Vajasaneyi is prominent. The Yajur-veda, however, has two samhitas, or collections of verses, known as the White Yajur-veda or Vajasaneyi-samhita with the hymns and rituals, and the Black Yajur-veda or Taittiriya-samhita with their interpretations.
These were primarily for the priests to use as a guide in performing sacred rituals, such as the ashvamedha or rajasuya, since they also contain directions or formulas that the priests use along with the verses that are sung during the ceremony.
Most of them are taken from the Rig-veda and arranged according to their use as utilized in particular rituals. From the original branches of the Sama-veda, three are still available, of which the Kauthumiya and Jaiminiya are prominent.
It is a book of verses in 20 chapters containing prayers, spells, and incantations which in some respects resemble magical instructions found in the Tantras and even various magical incantations found in Europe. The Atharva-veda contains a small section of verses of instruction, wisdom, descriptions of the soul and God, but the majority of it consists of rules for worshiping the planets, rules for oblations and sacrifices, prayers for averting evil and disease, incantations for the destruction of foes, for fulfilling personal desires, etc.Traditional factors that once explained men’s sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under Distribution network design: a literature review and a research agenda Riccardo Mangiaracina, Guang Song and Alessandro Perego Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering.
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