An Exploratory Account M. Generalizing this argument, it is proposed that all such unidirectional approaches that fail to account for the multi directional influences should be replaced with a multidirectional approach in which all of the concerned variables are given some causal authority. It offers a guideline for organizational theorists to critically evaluate existing theories and to formulate balanced theories in future. Population ecology, Critical analysis, Multidirectional causality Paper type:
Zulfqar Ahmad Corresponding Author University of the Punjab Abstract Muslim countries gained political independence from mid 40s onwards. However, during the colonial rule, Western powers tried to replace the Muslim thought, culture and institutions with the Western thought and culture through all possible means.
Muslim reaction to Western thought and civilization after liberation ranged from complete acceptance to resistance and total indifference. The dominating approach was of reconciliation which resulted in Westernization of the Muslim societies by the second half of 20th century.
However, it seems necessary to review the Muslims strategy at this stage.
This article is a review and proposes a Rana zamin abbas research papers approach in this direction. Introduction The political downfall of the Muslim Ummah after providing leadership to the world in every sphere for a millennium, was primarily due to two main factors Muzaffar, iqbalFirst, weakening of its commitment to its world view and noncompliance of Islamic injunctions, and secondly, the colonial policies of the Western nations which not only contributed to the downfall of Muslim Ummah but also occupied Muslim lands.
The colonial powers destroyed Muslim institutions and values by force and thrust the Electronic copy available at: Referring to the imperial powers' attitude, John L Esposito writes: The double threat of colonialism was that of the crown and the cross.
Their commitment to Islamic worldview was no doubt weakened but had not died out. Historically, the religious leadership played a leading role not only in the freedom movements of Muslim lands but also in framing Muslim response to modernity in the newly independent Muslim states. According to some orientalists, the Muslim reaction to modernity in the Sub-Continent varied from "blind and self defeating hostility" to "reasonable cooperation" John.
L,EspositoHowever, in the broader sense, this response can be divided into four categories: We would discuss these strategies one by one and our views are largely based on the behavior of the Muslims in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent but the same is true generally for most of the Muslim countries.
The religious leadership and the public at large in these countries, however, rejected this Westernization and subsequent uprising in favor of Islam and pro-Islamic governments in Turkey and Iran perhaps is the reaction of this Westernization in the past.
L,Esposito3. Policy of Reconciliation The Western colonial powers had demolished the social system of Muslim lands and managed to transfer power to the social groups brought up in the Western-style.
Accordingly, most of Muslim rulers in the new born Muslim states readily accepted Western life style and institutions.
However, the religious leadership in most of the Muslim countries had also organized itself by this time and many Islamic groups resisted the government policies. They were, however, unsuccessful mainly because of the brutal use of state power by the governments mostly run by military and civil dictators or monarchs to silence the Islamic organizations with the political support of the West.
This state of affairs gradually led to a situation where several Islamic groups accepted Western political institutions with a blend of certain basic Islamic concepts.
The existing political structure of Muslim countries is, perhaps, the best example of this reconciliation.
Electronic copy available at: And the religious parties despite their belief that Western democracy was unIslamic, Charles J, Adamsdid not find any other wayout except to accept Western democracy after certain basic Islamic principles, such as Sovereignty for Allah and legislation to be in line with the Islamic injunctions etc,Dr.
They agreed to take part in elections with the intention to mould the state structure according to Islamic teachings through popular vote. Mawdudi, Now, that half a century has passed, it seems appropriate to study the net result of this experiment.
No doubt they made mistakes but it is also a fact that the Western nations engineered their failure with the help of local governments. The state power was used to ensure that religious parties did not win the elections.
Karen, Armstrong, On the other hand, in the countries where Islamic groups managed to come to power despite all obstacles, such as Iran and Turkey, enormous pressure was being built to make them a failure. An analysis would show that notwithstanding their significant role in promoting the Islamic cause in the Muslim communities, their Reconciliatory approach in politics has been instrumental in secularization of the Muslim political thought on the whole.Methodology Starting with the insights of Ohmae (), Bartlett and Ghoshal () and others from globalization literature, this paper will explore the different perspectives of globalization namely: .
Specifically, this research contributes to the marketing literature on new product development by (1) considering technological orientation in addition to the other strategic orientations discussed in previous strategic orientation research, (2) viewing interfunctional coordina tion as a construct distinct from market orientation, and (3) evaluating innovation characteristics as a result of the strategic orientation of the .
RANA ZAMIN Abbas, University of Management and Technology, Management Science Department, Faculty Member. Studies Management Science, Global Leadership, and Business & Ethics. know thy self is the life for the height of consciousness and i am.
Zamin Abbas, Rana and Malik, M. Abdur Rahman and Ashraf, Muhammad and Ahmad, Zulfqar, New Horizons of Debate 'Environment - Selects or Selected': An Exploratory Account (June 1, ). Research Journal of Internatıonal Studıes, No. 19, June Rana zamin abbas: current contact information and listing of economic research of this author provided by RePEc/IDEAS.
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Muhammad Qasim: Study of essential elements in two commercially important fish species of river rana zamin abbas research papers Indus at.