Literature represents much of the very best of humanity's writings, and it is not by any accident that, after bestsellers and sensationalized books have faded from memory, literature continues to thrive and remain intensely relevant to contemporary human conditions. Literature's stories and texts survive the fires of time. This is why for decades and centuries - long after their authors have gone silent - the writings of Dante, Shakespeare, and Austen, among so many other vital voices, will continue to captivate readers and comment upon life.
Formalism theory[ edit ] New Criticism developed as a reaction to the older philological and literary history schools of the US North, which, influenced by nineteenth-century German scholarship, focused on the history and meaning of individual words and their relation to foreign and ancient languages, comparative sources, and the biographical circumstances of the authors.
These approaches, it was felt, tended to distract from the text and meaning of a poem and entirely neglect its aesthetic qualities in favor of teaching about external factors. On the other hand, the literary appreciation school, which limited itself to pointing out the "beauties" and morally elevating qualities of the text, was disparaged by the New Critics as too subjective and emotional.
Condemning this as a version of Romanticism, they aimed for newer, systematic and objective method. Heather Dubrow notes that the prevailing focus of literary scholarship was on "the study of ethical values and philosophical issues through literature, the tracing of literary history, and Literature was approached and literary scholarship did not focus on analysis of texts.
In order to bring the focus of literary studies back to analysis of the texts, they aimed to exclude the reader's response, the author's intention, historical and cultural contexts, and moralistic bias from their analysis.
These goals were articulated in Ransom's "Criticism, Inc. Close reading or explication de texte was a staple of French literary studies, but in the United States, aesthetic concerns, and the study of modern poets was the province of non-academic essayists and book reviewers rather than serious scholars.
The New Criticism changed this.
Though their interest in textual study initially met with resistance from older scholars, the methods of the New Critics rapidly predominated in American universities until challenged by Feminism and structuralism in the s.
Other schools of critical theory, including, post-structuralismand deconstructionist theorythe New Historicismand Receptions studies followed. Although the New Critics were never a formal group, an important inspiration was the teaching of John Crowe Ransom of Vanderbilt Universitywhose students all SouthernersAllen TateCleanth Brooksand Robert Penn Warren would go on to develop the aesthetics that came to be known as the New Criticism.
InWilliam K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled " The Intentional Fallacy ", in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author's intentionor "intended meaning" in the analysis of a literary work.
For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; importation of meanings from outside the text was considered irrelevant, and potentially distracting. This fallacy would later be repudiated by theorists from the reader-response school of literary theory. One of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fishwas himself trained by New Critics.
Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay "Literature in the Reader" Brooks and Warren's Understanding Poetry and Understanding Fiction both became staples during this era.
Studying a passage of prose or poetry in New Critical style required careful, exacting scrutiny of the passage itself. Formal elements such as rhymemeter, settingcharacterizationand plot were used to identify the theme of the text.
In addition to the theme, the New Critics also looked for paradoxambiguityironyand tension to help establish the single best and most unified interpretation of the text.
Although the New Criticism is no longer a dominant theoretical model in American universities, some of its methods like close reading are still fundamental tools of literary criticism, underpinning a number of subsequent theoretic approaches to literature including poststructuralism, deconstruction theory, and reader-response theory.
For instance, he stated, "If some of the New Critics have preferred to stress the writing rather than the writer, so have they given less stress to the reader—to the reader's response to the work. Yet no one in his right mind could forget the reader. He is essential for 'realizing' any poem or novel.
Reader response is certainly worth studying.Need Writing Help? Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly. Psychoanalytic Criticism Essay - Heart of Darkness: Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism originated in the work of Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who pioneered the technique of psychoanalysis.
New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century. It emphasized close reading, particularly of poetry, to discover how a work of literature functioned as a self-contained, self-referential aesthetic iridis-photo-restoration.com movement derived its name from John Crowe Ransom's book The New Criticism.
These are some of the many databases available to you as a member of Middletown Thrall Library: Artemis (now Gale Literary Sources) Searches the following databases (described below): Literature Criticism Online, Literature for Students, Literature Resource Center, and Something about the Author.
Ecocriticism is “ the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment. Just as feminist criticism examines language and literature from a gender-conscious perspective, and Marxist criticism brings an awareness of modes of production and economic class to its reading of texts, ecocriticism takes an earth-centered approach to literary studies” (Glotfelty.
Free psychoanalytic criticism papers, essays, and research papers. My Account. Your search returned over essays My Antonia Essay: Psychoanalytic Criticism which in turn help the reader become part of the story. "According to the Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature the psychoanalytic approach is " a valuable tool in.
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