This American spirit consisted of crossing continents and winning wilderness.
They encountered environmental challenges that were different from those they had known in Europe. Most important was the presence of uncultivated arable land.
They adapted to the new environment in certain ways — the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization. According to Turner, the forging of the unique and rugged American identity had to occur precisely at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness.
The dynamic of these oppositional conditions engendered a process by which citizens were made, citizens with the power to tame the wild and upon whom the wild had conferred strength and individuality Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two.
European characteristics fell by the wayside and the old country's institutions e.
Every generation moved further west and became more American, more democratic, and as intolerant of hierarchy as they were removed from it. They became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves.
In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. Closed Frontier Turner saw the land frontier was ending, since the U. Census of had officially stated that the American frontier had broken up. He sounded an alarming note, speculating as to what this meant for the continued dynamism of American society as the source of America's innovation and democratic ideals was disappearing.
Impact and influence Turner's thesis quickly became popular among intellectuals.
It explained why the American people and American government were so different from their European counterparts. It was popular among New Dealers--Franklin Roosevelt and his top aides  thought in terms of finding new frontiers.
This is the great, the nation-wide frontier of insecurity, of human want and fear. This is the frontier — the America — we have set ourselves to reclaim. For this reason, some critics on the left saw the Frontier Thesis as the impetus for a new wave in the history of United States imperialism.
However, Turner's work, in contrast to Roosevelt's work The Winning of the West, places greater emphasis on the development of American republicanism than on territorial conquest or the subjugation of the Native Americans. Radical historians of the s who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, disparaged the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups.
In the history of religion, for example, Boles notes that William Warren Sweet at the University of Chicago Divinity Schoolargued that churches adapted to the characteristics of the frontier, creating new denominations such as the Mormonsthe Church of Christthe Disciples of Christand the Cumberland Presbyterians.
The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such as revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching. This view dominated religious historiography for decades. Moos shows that the s to s black filmmaker and novelist Oscar Micheaux incorporated Turner's frontier thesis into his work.
Micheaux promoted the West as a place where blacks could transcend race and earn economic success through hard work and perseverance. Slatta argues that the widespread popularization of Turner's frontier thesis influenced popular histories, motion pictures, and novels, which characterize the West in terms of individualism, frontier violence, and rough justice.
Disneyland 's Frontierland of the late 20th century reflected the myth of rugged individualism that celebrated what was perceived to be the American heritage.
The public has ignored academic historians' anti-Turnerian models, largely because they conflict with and often destroy the icons of Western heritage. However, the work of historians during the ss, some of whom sought to bury Turner's conception of the frontier and others who have sought to spare the concept while presenting a more balanced and nuanced view, have done much to place Western myths in context and rescue Western history from them.
Historians have noted that John F. Kennedy in the early s explicitly called upon the ideas of the frontier. My call is to the young in heart, regardless of age — to the stout in spirit, regardless of party.
Limerick points out that Kennedy assumed that "the campaigns of the Old Frontier had been successful, and morally justified. The frontier thesis is one of the most influential documents on the American west today. Fermilab Kolb and Hoddeson argues that during the heyday of Kennedy's "New Frontier," the physicists who built the Fermi Labs explicitly sought to recapture the excitement of the old frontier.More than a century after he first delivered his frontier thesis, historians still hotly debate Turner's ideas and approach.
His critics have denied everything from his basic assumptions to the. University of Iowa Press, Paperback, pages, $ Let me say at the outset that for me the only definitive “Trails Conference” is the one that occurs toward the end of Zane Grey’s The Last Trail (), the concluding volume of the great author’s Frontier Trilogy, where bordermen.
APUSH Unit STUDY. PLAY. Fredrick Jackson Turner Frontier Thesis Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
Irreconcilables. The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.
He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process. The thesis basically maintained that the availability of free land on the American frontier - from the very start of settlement of North America, had played THE pivotal role in forming and encouraging the growth of American democracy.
Undoubtedly, the frontier thesis broadened the view of American historians and provided a new and insightful way of work to support the thesis.
Gradually, critics began to emerge. In general, critics argued that Turner's thesis was at best over simplistic and at worst factually flawed.
|Turner’s Frontier Thesis, Continued | The Russell Kirk Center||Evolution[ edit ] Frederick Jackson Turner, c.|
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Robert Riegel, reflective of the early critics, viewed.