Malinowski saw himself as effecting a revolution in anthropology by rejecting the evolutionary paradigm of his predecessors and introducing functionalism, whereby institutions satisfied human biological needs, as the way to understand other cultures. His lasting legacy, however, is methodological rather than theoretical. It was by exhorting anthropologists to give up their comfortable position on the veranda of the missionary compound or government station and to go and live and work with the people they studied that he effected his real innovation. Living with the people he studied, getting to know them personally, participating in their activities, and conducting his research in the vernacular has since become known as participant observation.
This relationship includes beliefs, practices, customs, usually involves devotional and ritual observances. It Comprises sacred texts which refer to the moral order of human conduct and several verses, essays, sayings which help as a guide towards the right path of life.
On the other hand, religion can be confused with many other supernatural or magical activities. It may include animism, animatism, totemism, fetishism but is different from all of them. Religion is also not identical to the society or social, nor can we state that religion adheres to live alone because it opens the fastest view of the other world and afterlife after death.
They play an important role in shaping the life of the individual by various events. There are certain physical and biological phases of human life such as conception, pregnancy, birth, puberty, marriage, and death, these phases mark the basis of beliefs and rites.
Beliefs about conception are related to spirit entry, reincarnation etc. During pregnancy, the mother has to be obeyed of certain taboos, and both father and mother are expected to perform certain ceremonies. At birth, there are various magical rites to prevent the newborn from dangers as well as purification rites.
Later in life, both girls and boys have to undergo rites of initiation, which takes place in mystery with obscene ordeals. In the Magical or supernatural activities, the aim and the motive is always clear, and precise whereas in the religious ceremonies there is no direct aim, it includes the devotion of the devotee but no direct motive.
Novices youth have to undergo a small period of seclusion in which they prepare themselves mentally, then comes initiation period, where they have to undergo certain ordeals, which includes bodily mutilation, slight incision or knocking out of a tooth.
In some of the Australian tribes, there are several cruel and dangerous practices of initiation practiced. The second feature of initiation is the training period of teaching the youth, explaining the novices about sacred myths and tradition, disclosing tribal mysteries to the youth and giving exposure of the sacred objects.
The third feature of initiation is to put the novice or the youth into a relationship with a legendary power or ancestral heroes or great personalities such as Guardians spirits of North Americans Indians, Tribal All —Fathers of Australian aborigines etc. In primitive societies, tradition plays an important role and has supreme value for the well being of the community.
Therefore, civilization can be maintained in the community by strictly adhering to the order and sacred knowledge which is passed from one generation to next. Any laxity negligence towards the order and sacred knowledge leads to the weakening of society and the community. These acts of initiation create a kind of spiritual transformation among the novices.
Another type of religious ceremony is the rite of marriage, which comprise of a bond, or the union of man and woman for lifelong relation, economic duties, the procreation and rearing of children. This union relationship is also known as monogamous marriage and has been witnessed in human societies.
Earlier Sex, was regarded as an essential element in Religion, it was allowed in various harvest festivals, public gatherings etc, but later it was regarded inappropriate as Religion, is a source of moral control, it was sidelined and finally the ideal of chastity was introduced and established as the moral of self-discipline.
Food has an important role in ceremonies of a religious character. First-fruit offerings was a ritual offering which was usually offered during harvest ceremonies, seasonal feasts. Hunters and fishers also observed offering usually with the beginning of a particular season or celebrated victory with feasts and ceremonies at which food is ritually handled.
Animals were worshipped during ritual offerings and feasts. These acts express the joy and togetherness of the community, their gratitude towards the value of food. Thus, religion creates an attitude of respect in men and the whole community towards his daily bread.
The ultimate goal of life to the primitive man is an abundance of food. It means that by receiving it shows gratitude towards destiny. Sacrifice and communion, the two main forms in which food is ritually governed, that the idea of giving, the importance of the exchange of gifts in the phases of life plays a role in sacrifice.
Underlying this custom there is a still deeper religious element which is, Since food is available in abundance and in the beneficence of the world, and many of them offer the food to the spirits and divinities first, which in turn means that by sharing the food sacrificially with the spirits or divinities, beneficial powers are provided to the individual.
According to the primitive belief, there is a reciprocal relationship between the role of food Sacrificial offerings with the primitive man and divine authorities that the more they offer and give respect to the divinity or the spirits, the more they receive in abundance. The sacramental meal is another facet, which includes the act of eating.
Primitive men get associated and create a sentiment of social attachment around each species, a sentiment which naturally finds its roots in mythology, belief, and ritual. The primitive man has a keen interest in animals he desires to have them and wants to control them. All these interests are ranked in a certain order of likeness such as animals on the top of the hierarchy, vegetable acquires the second position, inanimate or manmade things acquire secondary formation and termed as totemism.
Magic tends to become specialized within a family or clan which are known as totemic clans. Totemism as a form of Religion helps the primitive man to make sufficient use of his of surroundings.Magic, Science and Religion December ABSTRACT Malinowski's classic attempt to separate magic, science, and religion has not worn well.
For some purposes, we now can find it very useful indeed, at least insofar as it separates pragmatic knowledge from unverifiable belief. In his handling of science, magic, and religion, Malinowski essentially accepted the traditional Western conception of a dual reality-the reality of the natural world, grounded in observation and rational procedures that lead to mastery, and supernatural reality, grounded in emotional needs that give rise to faith.
A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors".
History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology. The term anthropology itself, innovated as a New Latin scientific word during the Renaissance, has always meant "the study (or science) of man".The topics to be included and the terminology have varied historically.
At present they are more elaborate than they were during. Malinowski's reader is provided with a set of concepts as to religion, magic, science, rite and myth in the course of forming vivid impressions and understandings of the Trobrianders into whose life he is so charmingly drawn.
Social anthropology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology).